The article contains an analysis of the content of the Peace of Olomouc, signed on the 21 July 1479, negotiated for over a year, known in three earlier versions, drafted in March, September and December 1478. This peace, which ended the war over the decade for the Bohemian throne between Matthias Corvinus , King of Hungary and Vladislaus II Jagiellon, was of great importance for the Crown of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Both were recognized as legitimate heirs of the Bohemian Crown, sharing power over it: Vladislaus gained power over the Kingdom of Bohemia, and Matthias over the peripheral countries of the Crown, i.e. Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia. Contrary to many earlier opinions, this did not mean separating the latter from the Bohemian Crown and incorporating them into the Hungarian Crown. On the contrary, peace strengthened the unity of the state – it was now ruled by two equal but competing kings.
Peace also settled the issue of succession. In the event that Władysław survives Matthias, he will become the ruler of the entire Czech Crown and pay the Kingdom of Hungary 400,000 guilders. In turn, if Matthias survives Vladislaus, he will become the ruler of the Bohemian Crown. According to the author, the above-mentioned amount of 400,000 guilders, which Vladislaus was to pay, was not compensation for Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia, but for the costs incurred by the Hungarian Crown and Matthias in connection with interventions in the internal affairs of the Bohemian Crown, namely in defense of Bohemian Catholics threatened by politics King George of Podebrady.
The peace was ratified first by the parliament of Silesia and Lusatia, and after a year by the parliament of Moravia, and also, though not directly, by the Czech states that recognized Vladislav as king. In all these ratifications, the integrity of the Bohemian Crown was emphasized (this is particularly evident in the documents of the Silesian side). Therefore, the use of the term “Hungarian period” in the history of Silesia is completely unjustified.